Socio-Cultural Effects of Tourism
Tourism does not only have economic effects. The country that the tourist goes to visit both affects the tourists and the people of the region are affected by the tourists. In order for tourism to develop in a region, it is necessary to have a socio-culturally developed, positive perspective towards the tourist. No matter how appropriate a region that does not have tourism consciousness for tourism, it never develops and the desired result is not achieved.
The fact that individuals want to relax by seeing different places and want to know different people and cultures has developed tourism. This desire has also improved cultural exchange. Cultural shopping, which started with domestic tourism, turned into foreign tourism with the development of the tourism sector. The social and cultural effects of the tourism sector are two-sided. Individuals who want to see different regions and geographies migrate to different cultures for a short time. While these tourists teach the cultural characteristics of the region they visit and are affected by the characteristics, the local people are also affected by the cultural characteristics of the tourist. Socio-cultural interaction is two-sided. Tourism enables different cultures to interact with each other. Therefore, tourism can be viewed as an event that causes changes in social and social structure. This double-sided interaction has both positive and negative sides. Interaction density can cause cultural degeneration. The local people meet a different culture with the coming tourist. Thanks to tourists, it improves communication skills by increasing communication with foreign people. However, tourism can lead to changes in the belief, values and culture of the region in the long term in the region where it is effective. The sudden change in the tourism sector and the increase in the number of tourists may adversely affect the social life and culture of that region. It can lead to loosening in the family structure of the region and undesirable changes in moral level.
Tourism regions are beginning to give more importance to the production of goods and handicrafts in order to attract more tourists and to promote the region well by offering different alternatives to existing tourists. Thanks to tourism, the artistic diversity of the region has started to gain importance. It is seen that it causes changes on traditional arts through the demand it creates. Individuals living in the region attach importance to cultural activities and develop their handicrafts in order to meet the demands.
In addition to improving the socio-cultural characteristics of the region, tourism also has aspects that will affect the region negatively. Even though seasonally, the increasing population amount also increases the crime rate. The unplanned and sudden increase in population amount may adversely affect the cultural and social values of the regional right. In this case, it brings about cultural corruption.
In general, we can list the positive and negative effects of tourism on socio-cultural features as follows:
a) Positive Effects
1. By improving interpersonal communication, it ensures respect for different thoughts and different lifestyles.
2. It develops the awareness of the people of the region to protect the historical values of the region.
3. It develops the awareness of keeping the environment tidy and clean.
4. It reveals different social institutions.
5. It improves family ties.
6. It ensures the development of rural areas.
7. It improves cultural exchange.
b) Adverse Effects
1. Cultural degeneration can be seen.
2. The crime rate is increasing.
3. It can change social values.
4. Cultural arts can also be used for commercial purposes.